Harvesting energy from the wind as an alternative to fossil fuels has many advantages in terms of protecting the environment and promoting sustainability.
However, the increasing penetration of wind power in electrical networks presents many challenges such as the intermittency of wind power, its relative high cost as compared to conventional sources, and technical impacts on the distribution systems.
Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are fast becoming integral components of the 21st century electrical grid at all levels including the generation, transmission, distribution and even at the consumer level.
The use of ICT in the modern wind power plants has also become the norm and offers numerous benefits in addressing the challenges of wind power integration.
ICT can support the efficient scheduling of wind power generation and energy dispatch, and can be used in automation, protection, and even in reactive power control applications.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has been playing a key role in the transition to a modernized ICT-based electrical grid by developing many communication standards.
These standards have opened the path to a unified and interoperable communication platform in different aspects of the power system network.
This paper provides an in depth overview of the relevant wind power communication standards and presents a review on their worldwide applications.
The key focus is on the application of the two most relevant IEC standards, the IEC 61850 and IEC 61400-25, in wind power systems, the current status of the literature and ongoing research projects.
The paper also identifies potential research directions for future development in this field.
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