on August 6th, 2021

One of the most frequent technical factors affecting Virtual Reality (VR) performance and causing motion sickness is system latency.

In this paper, we adopted predictive algorithms (i.e., Dead Reckoning, Kalman Filtering, and Deep Learning algorithms) to reduce the system latency. Cubic, quadratic, and linear functions are used to predict and curve fitting for the Dead Reckoning and Kalman Filtering algorithms.

We propose a time series-based LSTM (long short-term memory), Bidirectional LSTM, and Convolutional LSTM to predict the head and body motion and reduce the motion to photon latency in VR devices. The error between the predicted data and the actual data is compared for statistical methods and deep learning techniques.

The Kalman Filtering method is suitable for predicting since it is quicker to predict; however, the error is relatively high. However, the error property is good for the Dead Reckoning algorithm, even though the curve fitting is not satisfactory compared to Kalman Filtering. To overcome this poor performance, we adopted deep-learning-based LSTM for prediction.

The LSTM showed improved performance when compared to the Dead Reckoning and Kalman Filtering algorithm. The simulation results suggest that the deep learning techniques outperformed the statistical methods in terms of error comparison.

Overall, Convolutional LSTM outperformed the other deep learning techniques (much better than LSTM and Bidirectional LSTM) in terms of error

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