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The PLC is surely one of the workhorses in industry – no matter whether you are in industrial automation, electrical or mechanical engineering, you are likely to be confronted with one of these little beasts - a Programmable Logic Controller or PLC (or indeed, Programmable Automation Controller – PAC)...

Dear Colleagues,

EIT Stock ImageAs the truism goes: Over 80% of malfunctions with PLCs are associated with Input/Output modules and field equipment. Frustratingly true for someone who spends most of her time programming the PLC without much regard for the field equipment. Download my presentation entitled: Troubleshooting PLCs and SCADA Systems from my regular Wednesday afternoon online sessions.

The PLC is surely one of the workhorses in industry – no matter whether you are in industrial automation, electrical or mechanical engineering, you are likely to be confronted with one of these little beasts - a Programmable Logic Controller or PLC (or indeed, Programmable Automation Controller – PAC). A critical cheap building block for all automated systems.

A few tips on troubleshooting these devices

The first decision is to decide whether the problem is internal or external to the PLC. Bearing in mind that most malfunctions are I/O modules and field equipment. Problems related to a specific I/O module or input/output device are generally external problems while large groups of failures are generally related to the internals of the PLC.

Internal problems - first cab off the rank

External problems – the more likely problem

The main issue here is to find out why your internal program and data status doesn’t match up with the external situation.

Digital inputs

Digital Outputs

Analog Inputs

Analog Outputs

The hazards of remote troubleshooting

Some of my recent forays increasingly have been into remote troubleshooting of PLCs located thousands of kms away. But this can be a hazardous occupation without enormous care taken with network security to ensure that some one located in Siberia or West Waziristan doesn't hack into your critical industrial control system.

A few thorny transient problems

In my experience in troubleshooting, I have been occasionally exposed to sudden overvoltages which blew a range of variable speed drives and PLC inputs (due to discharge of a capacitor bank with a very sharp transient). Other ones have been horrible harmonics introduced by a new drive. This required isolation of analog inputs to eliminate this (as we then had aliasing problems). Finally, data communications problems traced to common mode voltages surges and fixable by isolation (fiber optics) and improved earthing.

When in doubt; disconnect

And when testing a PLC, ensure that you disconnect any critical high powered equipment when testing outputs. One PLC programmer I know, accidentally started a 1MW ball mill accidentally when testing a tiny digital output from the PLC…...

Particularly true of troubleshooting PLCs  is Oscar Wilde's comment: Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught.

The only way to learn is by your own efforts in troubleshooting.

Thanks to Ryan G. Rosandich for a great article on Troubleshooting PLCs.

Yours in engineering learning,

Steve

Mackays Musings 19th January16 #583       
125, 273 readers www.idc-online.com/blogs/stevemackay