Engineering Institute of Technology

 

Unit Name

POWER QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Unit Code

BEE209S

 

Unit Duration

Term

Award

Bachelor of Science (Engineering)

 

Duration 3 years

Year Level

Two or Three

Unit Creator/Reviewer

 

Core/Sub-discipline

Sub-discipline

Pre/Co-requisites

BSC104C, BEE204S

Credit Points

3

 

Total Program Credit Points 81 (27 x 3)

Mode of Delivery

Online or on-campus.

Unit Workload

(Total student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week)

Pre-recordings / Lecture – 1.5 hours Tutorial – 1.5 hours

Guided labs / Group work / Assessments – 2 hours

Personal Study recommended - 5 hours

The objective of this unit is to provide students with detailed knowledge of power quality and efficient use of energy resources. Information covered in this unit will include the meaning of power quality, the factors that affect it, the problems caused by poor quality of supply, and the steps to improve power quality. Additionally, energy efficiency at all stages of power generation, transmission, distribution, and utilisation will also be discussed. The discussion will include how to conduct an energy audit, how to detect areas of significant energy loss during the course of the audit, and how to report the findings regarding measures which can improve energy efficiency and their financial viability. Students will also undertake a project involving a power quality/energy audit study for a typical industrial power network.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

 

  1. Explain the basic principles of power quality, causes of poor quality, and their effects.

  2. Discuss the methods available for improvement of power quality.

  3. Establish a mechanism to monitor power quality in a network, interpret the results, and suggest solutions for improvement.

  4. Identify areas of poor energy efficiency in an operation and possible improvement measures.

  5. Establish in quantitative terms – by performing energy efficiency calculations – the actual losses and benefits of efficiency improvement in terms of return on investment.

  6. Outline the process for conducting an energy audit of a facility, and reporting the findings.

    Completing this unit may add to students professional development/competencies by:

    1. Fostering personal and professional skills and attributes in order to:

      1. Conduct work in a professionally diligent, accountable and ethical manner.

      2. Effectively use oral and written communication in personal and professional domains.

      3. Foster applicable creative thinking, critical thinking and problem solving skills.

      4. Develop initiative and engagement in lifelong learning and professional development.

      5. Enhance collaboration outcomes and performance in dynamic team roles.

      6. Effectively plan, organise, self-manage and manage others.

      7. Professionally utilise and manage information.

      8. Enhance technologist literacy and apply contextualised technologist skills.

    2. Enhance investigatory and research capabilities in order to:

      1. Develop an understanding of systematic, fundamental scientific, mathematic principles, numerical analysis techniques and statistics applicable to technologists.

      2. Access, evaluate and analyse information on technologist processes, procedures, investigations and the discernment of technologist knowledge development.

      3. Foster an in-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge, computer science, engineering design practice and contextual factors applicable to technologists.

      4. Solve basic and open-ended engineering technologist problems.

      5. Understand the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds associated with sustainable engineering practice.

    3. Develop engineering application abilities in order to:

      1. Apply established engineering methods to broadly-defined technologist problem solving.

      2. Apply engineering technologist techniques, tool and resources.

      3. Apply systematic technologist synthesis and design processes.

      4. Systematically conduct and manage technologist projects, work assignments, testing and experimentation.

The Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologists, approved as of 2013. This table is referenced in the mapping of graduate attributes to learning outcomes and via the learning outcomes to student assessment.

 

Stage 1 Competencies and Elements of Competency

1.

Knowledge and Skill Base

1.1

Systematic, theory based understanding of the underpinning natural and physical sciences and the engineering fundamentals applicable to the technology domain.

1.2

Conceptual understanding of the, mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics, and computer and information sciences which underpin the technology domain.

1.3

In-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge within the technology domain.

1.4

Discernment of knowledge development within the technology domain.

1.5

Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the technology domain.

1.6

Understanding of the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of sustainable engineering practice in the technology domain.

2.

Engineering Application Ability

2.1

Application of established engineering methods to broadly-defined problem solving within the technology domain.

2.2

Application of engineering techniques, tools and resources within the technology domain.

2.3

Application of systematic synthesis and design processes within the technology domain.

2.4

Application of systematic approaches to the conduct and management of projects within the technology domain.

3.

Professional and Personal Attributes

3.1

Ethical conduct and professional accountability.

3.2

Effective oral and written communication in professional and lay domains.

3.3

Creative, innovative and pro-active demeanour.

3.4

Professional use and management of information.

3.5

Orderly management of self and professional conduct.

3.6

Effective team membership and team leadership.

Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes aligned to the AQF Level 7 criteria, Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologists and the Sydney Accord:

 

Graduate Attributes

(Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Professional and Personal Development)

EA Stage 1 Competencies

Learning Outcomes

A. Knowledge of Science and Engineering Fundamentals

A1. Breadth of knowledge of engineering and systematic, theory-based understanding of underlying principles, and depth of knowledge across one or more engineering sub- disciplines

 

1.1, 1.3

 

1, 2, 4, 5

A2. Knowledge of mathematical, statistical and computer sciences appropriate for engineering technology

 

1.2

 

5

A3. Discernment of knowledge development within the technology domain

1.4

1, 2, 4, 5

A4. Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the technology domain

 

1.5

 

3, 6

B. Problem Solving, Critical Analysis and Judgement

B1. Ability to research, synthesise, evaluate and innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches across diverse engineering technology contexts to effectively solve engineering problems

 

1.4, 2.1, 2.3

 

3, 6

B2. Technical and project management skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering technology professional practice

 

2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.2

 

3, 6

C. Effective Communication

C1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience

 

3.2

 

3, 6

C2. Ability to engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of cultures

3.2

 

D. Design and Project Management

D1. Apply systematic synthesis and design processes within the technology domain

2.1, 2.2, 2.3

1, 2, 4, 5

D2. Apply systematic approaches to the conduct and management of projects within the technology domain

 

2.4

 

3, 6

E. Accountability, Professional and Ethical Conduct

E1. Innovation in applying engineering technology, having regard to ethics and impacts including economic; social; environmental and sustainability

 

1.6, 3.1, 3.4

 

1, 2, 4, 5

E2. Professional conduct, understanding and accountability in professional practice across diverse circumstances including team work, leadership and independent work

 

3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6

 

Unit Competency and Learning Outcome Map

This table details the mapping of the unit graduate attributes to the unit learning outcomes and the Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Engineering Technologist.

 

 

 

Graduate Attributes

A1

A2

A3

A4

B1

B2

C1

C2

D1

D2

E1

E2

 

Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologist

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit Learning Outcomes

LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LO3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LO5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LO6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Student Assessment

 

 

Assessment Type

When Assessed

Weighting

 

(% of total unit marks)

Learning Outcomes Assessed

 

Assessment 1

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation

Topic: Power quality.

Students will complete a quiz with MCQ type answers to

30 questions to demonstrate a detailed knowledge of power quality problems and solutions.

 

Week 5

 

15%

 

1, 2

 

Assessment 2

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation

Example Topic: Energy efficiency

Students will complete a test with about 20 questions having a mix of numerical problems and short answer questions (each to be answered in less than 100 words and explanatory diagrams) to demonstrate a detailed knowledge ofenergy efficiency problems in industry and possible solutions.

 

Week 10

 

20%

 

3, 4

 

Assessment 3

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation / Project / Report

Example Topic: A project covering the energy audit (or power quality audit) of an industrial facility.

 

Week 11

 

20%

 

5, 6

 

Assessment 4

Type: Examination Example Topic: All topics

An examination with a mix of detailed essay type questions and numerical problems to be completed within 2 hours.

 

Final Week

 

40%

 

All

 

Attendance / Tutorial Participation

Example: Presentation, discussion, group work, exercises, self-assessment/reflection, case study analysis, application.

Continuous

5%

-

Prescribed and Recommended Readings

 

Required textbook(s)

EIT reference books on the topics of power quality (PH) and energy efficiency (EE)

 

Reference Materials

Number of peer-reviewed journals and websites (advised during lectures). An example is shown below:

https://www.environmentalleader.com/2012/06/14/how-to-do-a-basic-energy-audit/ : How to Do a Basic Energy Audit - June 14, 2012, Environmental Leader.

 

Unit Content

One topic is delivered per contact week, with the exception of part-time 24-week units, where one topic is delivered every two weeks.

 

Topics 1 and 2

Basics of power quality, problems, and solutions

  1. Power quality – definition

  2. Common types of power quality problems encountered in a system

  3. Power interruptions – problems and some reasons for these

  4. Reliability indicators (SAIDI, SAIFI, and etc.) used by utilities, and measures to improve reliability

  5. Use of automatic circuit reclosers

  6. Emergency power, electronic uninterrupted power supply equipment, and engine- based uninterrupted supplies

  7. Voltage sag – problems and some reasons for these

  8. Voltage regulation methods

  9. Flicker and control by SVC equipment

  10. Over-voltage and its effects

  11. Transient over-voltage and the role of surge protection

 

Topics 3 and 4

Unbalance and Harmonics and mitigation

  1. Unbalance in power systems

  2. Symmetrical components for quantifying the unbalance

  3. Problems caused by unbalanced current/voltage

  4. Mitigation measures

  5. Definition of harmonics

  6. Fourier theorem for analysis

  7. Reason for harmonics

  8. Problems caused by harmonics

  9. Control of harmonics-principles

  10. Harmonic control at source

  11. Active and passive filters and comparison

  12. Relation between harmonics and EMI

 

Topics 5 and 6

Power quality studies in an installation

  1. Analysis of power quality problems

  2. Summary of solutions

  3. Case studies from industry

  4. Power quality site studies and types of studies

  5. Conducting a systematic study

  6. Instruments used

  7. Study using a power quality analyser

  8. Period of study

  9. Recording the measurements

  10. Analysis of the results

  11. Report preparation

 

Topics 7 and 8

Energy forms and the impact of energy losses

  1. What is energy?

  2. Forms of energy

  3. Energy sources and sinks

  4. A global look at energy production and sinks

  5. Sources of energy and EROEI (Energy Return Of Energy Invested) of different fuels

  6. Laws of thermodynamics

  7. Environment impact due to energy losses

  8. Ozone layer and global warming

  9. Sustainability principles

  10. Carbon footprint of an activity and need for its reduction

  11. Energy usage in industrial applications

  12. Energy losses and scope for loss reduction

 

Topics 9 and 10

Energy losses in different processes and improving energy efficiency

  1. Inefficient fuel use in heating operations

  2. Improving combustion efficiency to reduce fuel consumption

  3. Heat energy and heat losses with typical examples

  4. Obtaining better efficiency by waste heat recovery

  5. Reduction of heat losses by proper sealing

  6. Loss of heat through charge (process material)

  7. Improved processes for better energy usage (examples)

  8. Climate control and energy efficiency

  9. Cogeneration as a method of heat recovery

  10. Electrical energy utilisation

  11. Energy conservation opportunities in electrical equipment

  12. Variable speed drives for energy saving

 

Topic 11

Energy audit

  1. Energy audit as a means of improvement

  2. Areas of audit

  3. Instruments used for audit

  4. Typical audit procedures

  5. Measurements and comparison using graphical representation

  6. Financial analysis of investment proposals for energy saving and establishing ROI

  7. Audit report

 

Topic 12

Unit Review

In the final week students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.