Process Safety Lifecycle Management
Graduate Diploma of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas)
Duration: 1 year
Master of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas) Duration: 2 years
Grad Dip total course credit points = 24 (3 credits x 8 (units))
Masters total course credit points = 48
(12 credits (Thesis) + 3 credits x 12 (units))
Mode of Delivery
Combination of modes: Online synchronous lectures; asynchronous discussion groups, videos, remote and cloud-based labs (simulations); web and video conferencing tutorials. High emphasis on personal and group self-study.
Delivery/ Contact Hours per week
Student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week: Lecture 1 hour
Tutorial Lecture 1 hours
Practical / Lab 1 hour (where relevant) Personal Study recommended - 7 hours
Students will be provided with Blackboard Collaborate (or similar) for video and web conferencing. This will allow them to attend lectures, interact with lecturers and fellow students, and use the Remote Lab facility. Students will be required to download the latest version of Java and .NET in order to use these packages.
For ease of communicating with peers and lecturers, installation of this package is recommended.
It is recommended that students install at least a 2007 version of the Microsoft Office. Older versions will work, but sometimes create issues with file compatibility. If individuals are reluctant to use these, they can also use Open Office (www.openoffice.org).
As students are co-operating with people from throughout the world with a multitude of different PCs, it is recommended that they have good quality up-to-date virus detection software installed. The free version of AVG is sufficient. A thorough automated scan of computers at least once a week is recommended.
EIT uses a state-of-the-art learning management system (Moodle) for lecturing and interacting with lecturers and fellow students. Students can chat, socialize, and collaborate on projects with similarly motivated and enthusiastic course participants.
Computing resource requirements
Students’ computers should have an Intel Core Duo CPU and 2 Gigabytes of RAM. Hard disk space available should be at least 2 Gigabytes free. If necessary the built-in hard drive can be augmented with an inexpensive USB drive. No particular special graphics card is required. The operating system should be Windows with Windows 7 Service Pack 1 as a minimum.
An ADSL Internet connection with a minimum speed of 128 kbps down and 64 kbps up is recommended.
Students will require a good quality stereo headset with analogue or USB connectors. In addition, a low-cost USB webcam is recommended. Students should budget in the order of
$30 for a headset and $20 for a webcam. This will vary from country to country.
For difficulties with other online materials the lecturer should be contacted. Technical material will be accessible 24/7 through the online portal.
This unit provides sufficient depth of understanding of the principles and practical application of functional safety from initial hazard identification through design, configuration, testing, installation, commissioning and maintenance of a safety control system and associated instrumentation in the context of the oil and gas industry.
The unit will concentrate on functional safety and safety instrumented systems (SIS) used in the industry in the broader context of overall process safety. The aim is to ensure participants gain a wider understanding and thus are better placed to provide balanced practical advice on achieving process safety through the application of instrumented safety.
The underlying principles of process safety (hazard identification, risk assessment, layers of protection analysis) and functional safety lifecycle (FSLC) activities will provide the student with an understanding of how to systematically identify and apply these principles to SIS used in industry (eg package plant machinery protection, process / emergency shutdown systems, fire and gas system design). Practical aspects of the FSLC development and overall functional safety management will be addressed, including operation and maintenance activities.
On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:
Identify principles of process safety to onshore and offshore oil & gas facilities including industry regulatory and standards requirements and common hazard management processes and techniques.
Identify and apply principles of FSLC management in accordance with IEC 61511 (and IEC 61508) to SIS used on onshore and offshore oil & gas facilities.
Analyse and apply sound engineering practices and demonstrate in-depth understanding of individual functional safety lifecycle activities.
Completing this unit will add to students professional development/competencies by:
Fostering the personal and professional skills development of students to:
Be adaptable and capable 21st century citizens, who can communicate effectively, work collaboratively, think critically and innovatively solve complex problems.
Equipping individuals with an increased capacity for lifelong learning and professional development.
Planning and organising self and others
Instilling leadership qualities and a capacity for ethical and professional contextualization of knowledge
Enhancing students’ investigatory and research capabilities through:
Solving complex and open-ended engineering problems
Accessing, evaluating and analysing information
Processes and procedures, cause – effect investigations
Developing the engineering application abilities of students through:
Labs / practical / case studies / self-study (where applicable)
Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes.
A. Effective Communication
Learning Outcomes (Refer to 2.2)
A1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience.
A2. Ability to engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of international cultures.
B. Critical Judgement
B1. Ability to critically analyse and evaluate complex information and theoretical concepts.
B2. Ability to innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches with a high level of accountability, in an engineering context.
C. Design and Problem Solving Skills
C1. Cognitive skills to synthesise, evaluate and use information from a broad range of sources to effectively identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.
C2. Technical and communication skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering professional practice.
C3. Comprehension of the role of technology in society and identified issues in applying engineering technology ethics and impacts; economic; social; environmental and sustainability.
D. Science and Engineering Fundamentals
D1. Breadth and depth of knowledge of engineering and understanding of future developments.
D2. Knowledge of ethical standards in relation to professional engineering practice and research.
D3. Knowledge of international perspectives in engineering and ability to apply Australian and International Standards.
E. Information and Research Skills
E1. Application of advanced research and planning skills to engineering projects.
1,2,3, A, B
E2. Knowledge of research principles and methods in an engineering context.
(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic) Examination (specify length and format))
When assessed (eg Week 5)
Weighting (% of total unit marks)
Learning Outcomes Assessed
Assessment 1 Type: Quiz Word length: n/a
Topic examples: Fundamental concepts of process safety
Type: Report (Midterm Project)
[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and proposed solution with concept workings]
Word length: 1000
Topic examples: Safety requirement specification for an offshore production facility for a SIS or as specified by the lecturer.
1, 2, 3
Type: Report (Final Project)
[If a continuation of the midterm, this should complete the report by adding sections on: workings, implementation, results, verification/validation, conclusion/challenges and recommendations/future work. If this is a new report, all headings from the midterm and the final reports must be included.]
Word length: 4000
Topic examples: Functional safety management plan development
1, 2, 3,
May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies: E.g. Safety instrumented function design verification calculations for several SIFs (including optimisation based on actual maintenance data gathered) or as directed by the lecturer
T. A. Kletz, Process Plants - A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Taylor and Francis, London, 1998. ISBN 978-1-56032-619-9
Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems, IEC standard 61508-1 to 7,
Functional Safety - Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector. Parts 1 and 3, IEC standard 61511, 2002. (OR AS 61511 or BS EN 61511 or ANSI/ISA S84.01:2004)
ISO14121-2 Practical examples of Risk Assessments
AS 4024 Safety of Machinery Standard
EEMUA Publication 222 Guide to the application of IEC 61511 to safety instrumented systems in the UK process industries.
ISA TR84.00.02 (various parts as selected by course developer / lecturer) on further Guidance on the application of IEC 61511 to safety instrumented systems, 2010, International Society for Automation (ISA)
D.J. Smith and K.G.L. Simpson, Safety critical systems handbook: a straightforward guide to functional safety: IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards, 2010
Layer of Protection Analysis: Simplified Process Risk Assessment (A CCPS Concept Book)
W.M. Goble and H. Cheddie, Safety Instrumented Systems Verification: Practical Probabilistic Calculations, 2010
Number of peer-reviewed journals and websites (advised during lectures) [some examples below]:
Week 1 and 2
Process Safety Overview
What goes wrong and why
Hazard identification, risk assessment
Safety maturity model, ALARP and tolerable risk
System safety vs. safety management system
System safety process
Systematic failure avoidance: Quality control, design codes, Preventative maintenance (RBI, RCM), etc.
Random hardware failure, failure modes (including unrevealed unsafe failures), average probability of failure on demand, test intervals and coverage (Random failure avoidance: redundancy, diagnostics, etc.)
Hazard reduction and layers of protection
Risk evaluation models – qualitative vs. quantitative, deterministic vs. stochastic, probabilistic, risk analysis model, developing accident scenarios and initiating events, event trees, risk profiles, consequence determination, uncertainty
Risk analysis techniques (process safety analysis, cause and consequence analysis, root cause analysis, bow-tie analysis
Advantages and dis-advantages of SIL/LOPA studies
Organisational safety culture
Current state of process safety and key challenges
Legislative and Compliance Framework
Typical legislative requirements
US OSHA PSM Regulation
US EPA / RMP Regulations
European Union – Seveso I, II, and III, REACH
UK COMAH / CIMAH
Norway / North Sea (Safety Case)
Australia / New Zealand (Major Hazard Facilities)
Australia NOPSEMA (Safety Case)
Codes and standards
Safety critical elements and performance standards
Weeks 4 and 5
IEC 61511 (and IEC 61508) Overview
Background to the standard
Process risk, residual risk, tolerable risk
Separation of process control and process safety
Equipment Under Control (EUC) and its application, detection, logic action and safe state definition
Safety functions and safety-related systems
Safety integrity levels (high and low demand)
Systematic capability (refer IEC 61508)
Different voting arrangements and their consequences
SIL levels, device types and architectural constraints: fault tolerance /redundancy – differences between IEC 61511 and IEC 61508
IEC 61511 Clauses 5 and 10.3
Safety software requirements – dedicated SRS, V-Model
Avoidance of systematic failures and spurious trips
Functional safety assessments
Functional safety management overview (including planning, verification, validation, functional safety assessment, function testing, management of change, competency and certification) – differences between project personnel and end-user
Application of functional safety to Oil & Gas industry and special applications: High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems, Burner Management Systems (ie sequential logic), drilling equipment, batch processes, fire and gas
Legacy issues and ‘proven in use’ solutions
When to conduct SIL studies in relation to other safety studies and level of design maturity
Key inputs: risk criteria analysis: calibrating company risk matrices for SIL studies, safety instrumented function identification, HAZAN / HAZOP studies, project documentation
Assumptions (eg generally semi-quantitative technique used)
Conducting the workshop
Re-analysis during operations
Safety Instrumented Function Design and Verification
Identifying SIF elements and safe state
Reliability block diagrams and fault modelling (FTA, Markov modeling, simplified equations)
Failure modes, diagnostic coverage, safe failure fraction, failure data sources & assumptions
Proven in use assessment
Proof test coverage, preventative maintenance requirements
Redundancy and common mode failure
Tools and techniques
Probability failure on demand calculations examples
Safety Requirements Specification
Separation of SIF and non-SIF
SIL determination output and summary
Project functional requirements
Design basis; scope, context, assumptions, clarifications, definitions etc.
SIF characterisation details including: Description, Instances, P&ID, SAFE Chart, Case, Hazardous Event, Causes, Consequences, Process Safety State, Other LOPs Considered, Target SIL, Risk Reduction Factor, Safety-Critical, Demand Mode, Proof Test Interval, MTTFSP, MTTR, Other Special Considerations.
Detailed Design Considerations
Selection of the logic solver hardware supplier for the SIS, required components and architecture
Selection of field devices and other components of the SIS
Definition of third party interfaces (including HMI)
Calculations (power consumption, heat dissipation, fault current, cable sizing, etc.)
Prototype testing of typical loops
Production of drawings to enable system to be built
Production of documents and drawings to enable the system to be installed
Development of project Software Quality Plan
Selection of software tools and programming language
Detailed software design (including definition of program structure, required software modules, communication drivers, diagnostics usage, alarm handling, voting arrangements, overrides, interfaces, etc)
Functional Safety Management
Planning – division of responsibility across the safety lifecycle, typical documentation suite
FSM plan covering concept, strategy, scope, activities, competency, personnel, roles and responsibilities, organisation, independence, processes (ISO 9000 type and FSM specific), planning, documentation, verification and validation plans, monitoring, review and audits
Guidance on specific elements: realisation, testing, installation, validation, commissioning, formal safety assessment
Continual improvement, audit and review, reporting.
Operations and Maintenance
Planning and plans for operations
Periodic testing procedures (on-line and off-line)
Preventative maintenance, field instrumentation and logic solver diagnostics, system alarms)
Integration with maintenance management system (PMs, work orders, failure history, backlog management)
Managing system integrity, competency, change management
System support (expertise, tools, test equipment, spares, repair and test cycle),
Optimising maintenance (failure data, process shutdown capture, data analysis, hazard review, test interval and coverage)
Project and Revision
In the final weeks students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.