Graduate Diploma of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas)
Duration: 1 year
Master of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas) Duration: 2 years
Paul Maj and John Westover
Grad Dip total course credit points = 24 (3 credits x 8 (units))
Masters total course credit points = 48
(12 credits (Thesis) + 3 credits x 12 (units))
Mode of Delivery
Combination of modes: Online synchronous lectures; asynchronous discussion groups, videos, remote and cloud-based labs (simulations); web and video conferencing tutorials. High emphasis on personal and group self-study.
Delivery/ Contact Hours per week
Student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week: Lecture 1 hour
Tutorial Lecture 1 hours
Practical / Lab 1 hour (where relevant) Personal Study recommended - 7 hours
Students will be provided with Blackboard Collaborate (or similar) for video and web conferencing. This will allow them to attend lectures, interact with lecturers and fellow students, and use the Remote Lab facility. Students will be required to download the latest version of Java and .NET in order to use these packages.
For ease of communicating with peers and lecturers, installation of this package is recommended.
It is recommended that students install at least a 2007 version of the Microsoft Office. Older versions will work, but sometimes create issues with file compatibility. If individuals are reluctant to use these, they can also use Open Office (www.openoffice.org).
As students are co-operating with people from throughout the world with a multitude of different PCs, it is recommended that they have good quality up-to-date virus detection software installed. The free version of AVG is sufficient. A thorough automated scan of computers at least once a week is recommended.
EIT uses a state-of-the-art learning management system (Moodle) for lecturing and interacting with lecturers and fellow students. Students can chat, socialize, and collaborate on projects with similarly motivated and enthusiastic course participants.
Computing resource requirements
Students’ computers should have an Intel Core Duo CPU and 2 Gigabytes of RAM. Hard disk space available should be at least 2 Gigabytes free. If necessary the built-in hard drive can be augmented with an inexpensive USB drive. No particular special graphics card is required. The operating system should be Windows with Windows 7 Service Pack 1 as a minimum.
An ADSL Internet connection with a minimum speed of 128 kbps down and 64 kbps up is recommended.
Students will require a good quality stereo headset with analogue or USB connectors. In addition, a low-cost USB webcam is recommended. Students should budget in the order of
$30 for a headset and $20 for a webcam. This will vary from country to country.
For difficulties with other online materials the lecturer should be contacted. Technical material will be accessible 24/7 through the online portal.
Instrument Engineering for Oil and Gas industries is a very complex and diverse discipline in that many different measurement techniques require knowledge of the laws of physics, chemistry and mathematics. This unit covers these in detail along with applicable theory, which is used in industry. It also has particular emphasis on instrumentation used in the Offshore and Onshore Oil and Gas industry, utilising extensive Offshore and Onshore Oil and Gas Engineering experience of Highly Qualified Lecturers. This unit provides practical examples of how the learning can be integrated into “the big picture”.
This unit focusses on the engineering processes in pressure, level, temperature, and flow measurement technology, control valve technology, measurement, calibration and testing, and differentiating between control, safety, and custody transfer measurement and instrumentation.
This unit requires a high level of commitment and effort. It will be hard work and much is expected of students. However being focused on the skills, knowledge and competencies expected of an Oil and Gas Instrument Engineer in Industry it will be worth the effort.
On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:
Determine and apply Units and Conversions used in the Oil and Gas Industry
Analyse and understand the engineering process on pressure, level, temperature, and flow measurement technology
Analyse and understand the engineering process on control valve technology
Apply principles of calibration and testing
Deliver skills, knowledge and competencies on measurement as an Oil and Gas Instrument Engineer in Industry
Completing this unit will add to students professional development/competencies by:
Fostering the personal and professional skills development of students to:
Be adaptable and capable 21st century citizens, who can communicate effectively, work collaboratively, think critically and innovatively solve complex problems.
Equipping individuals with an increased capacity for lifelong learning and professional development.
Planning and organising self and others
Instilling leadership qualities and a capacity for ethical and professional contextualization of knowledge
Enhancing students’ investigatory and research capabilities through:
Solving complex and open-ended engineering problems
Accessing, evaluating and analysing information
Processes and procedures, cause – effect investigations
Developing the engineering application abilities of students through:
Labs / practical / case studies / self-study (where applicable)
Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes.
A. Effective Communication
Learning Outcomes (Refer to 2.2)
A1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience.
A2. Ability to engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of international cultures.
B. Critical Judgement
B1. Ability to critically analyse and evaluate complex information and theoretical concepts.
1, 2, 3, 5, B
B2. Ability to innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches with a high level of accountability, in an engineering context.
C. Design and Problem Solving Skills
C1. Cognitive skills to synthesise, evaluate and use information from a broad range of sources to effectively identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.
C2. Technical and communication skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering professional practice.
C3. Comprehension of the role of technology in society and identified issues in applying engineering technology ethics and impacts; economic; social; environmental and sustainability.
D. Science and Engineering Fundamentals
D1. Breadth and depth of knowledge of engineering and understanding of future developments.
D2. Knowledge of ethical standards in relation to professional engineering practice and research.
D3. Knowledge of international perspectives in engineering and ability to apply Australian and International Standards.
E. Information and Research Skills
E1. Application of advanced research and planning skills to engineering projects.
4, 5, 6, A, B
E2. Knowledge of research principles and methods in an engineering context.
1, 4, 5, B
(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic) Examination (specify length and format))
When assessed (eg Week 5)
Weighting (% of total unit marks)
Learning Outcomes Assessed
Assessment 1 Type: Quiz Word length: n/a
Topic examples: Fundamental concepts of pressure, level, and temperature measurement
Type: Report (Midterm Project)
[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and proposed solution with concept workings]
Word length: 1000
Topic examples: Fuel Gas Conditioning, Resolution of Flow Metering Error. Determine instrumentation requirements, prepare data sheets, etc.
Type: Report (Final Project)
[If a continuation of the midterm, this should complete the report by adding sections on: workings, implementation, results, verification/validation, conclusion/challenges and recommendations/future work. If this is a new report, all headings from the midterm and the final reports must be included.]
Word length: 2000
Topic examples: Continuation of midterm, or new topic on tying everything together and developing a cascade control loop, including instrument selection and valve selection, determining when instruments from one application can be used for other data management (e.g. custody transfer level instruments can be used for spill management and incident reporting)
3, 5, 6
May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies: E.g. Valve sizing, Simulation or Case study
B. G. Liptak, Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Vol. 1: Process Measurement and Analysis, 4th Edition, CRC Press, 2003
M. D. Whitt, Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design, 2nd Edition, ISA, 2012 (ISBN 978-1-936007-45-5)
W. Boyes, Instrumentation Reference Book, 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2010 (ISBN 978-0-7506- 8308-1)
IDC notes and Reference texts as advised.
Other material advised during the lectures
Issues with Data Management and Units and Conversions used in the Oil and Gas Industry
Data management. An instrument is a data collector, as part of a data management system that is the control system. Understanding the issues of data management can help understanding the issues of not only measurement, but also fitting the instrument into the entire control system. Data Sheets and their role in the instrument lifecycle. Index and Loop Diagrams. NE-107/NE-43
SI and Imperial Units – Many Instruments originate from the USA where Imperial Units are used such as psi. As a result confusion can arise which compromise safety and integrity, there have been over-pressurisation incidents resulting in vessels exploding. Thus this section highlights this.
Oil and Gas Pressure Measurement – Principles and Theory
Pressure Measurement Instrumentation
Principles of pressure measurement – Gauge and absolute, pressure ratings – proof pressure
Pressure Measurement Devices and Accessories
Pressure Indicators, snubbers, switches, elements, diaphragm seals and other accessories
Process Take Off, Installation considerations.
Atmospheric pressure with different atmospheres
Manifolds, Close Coupling, Monoflanges and Other Accessories
Weeks 3, 4
Oil and Gas Level Measurement – Principles and Theory
Level Measurement Instrumentation
Radar and microwave
Level Measurement Devices and Accessories
Tank gauging equipment
Issues Related to Level Measurement
Fiscal measurement of level
Level calculations – Differential Pressure – Hydrostatic Head
Calculations associated with Radioactive sources.
Interface Level Calculations
Interface Level Issues
Elevation and suppression
Reference legs and sealing liquids
Use of Stilling Well
Purging and Heating
Impact on the overall control loop
Oil and Gas Temperature Measurement – Principles and Theory
International Temperature Scales, Deg Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin, Rankine, Degree Absolute
Thermo Electric Effect
Thermocouple Principle, Types, Ranges, Materials, Cold Junction Compensation, Extension Leads, Ranges, Thermocouple Tables, Construction
Thermistors - Steinhart–Hart equation, Principle, Self Heating Effects, Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistors (NTC Thermistors), Construction
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD), Principles, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Resistance v Temperature relationship of Metals, Ranges, Materials, Resistance Thermometer curves, Construction
Liquid filled glass
Thermowell Construction, Materials, Insertion Length, Vibration Analysis and Fatigue failure (ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010).
Non-Contacting techniques and Principles– thermal radiation, Infra red, Ranges.
Weeks 6, 7, 8
Oil and Gas Flow Measurement – Principles and Theory
Flow Metering Standards – ISO 5167 - AGA3
Flow Measurement Instrumentation
Differential pressure - Theory – Fluid properties - Bernouilli’s Theorem – Square Law Effect – Orifice Plates – Reynolds Number – Venturi – Pitot Tube – V Cone – Calculations and Sizing, Turndown, Accuracy, Error, Uncertainty, Need for P/T compensation
Restriction Orifice Plates – Principals and Calculations
Variable area (Rotameter) – Visual and All Metal Type
Preferred Differential Pressure Ranges – effect of flow regime and other parameters
Measurement Based on Mass Flow Rate
Measurement Based on Flow Velocity
Other Types of Flow Measurement
Multiphase flow measurement –API RP86
Wet Gas flow measurement – V Cone Meter
Oscillatory flow measurement
Flare Gas flow measurement
Selection of flowmeters for Oil and Gas Applications
Purpose (custody transfer, safety, machinery protection, general process control, environmental reporting, etc)
Preferences for flow measurement – No Physical Process Connections - Vortex, Coriolis, magnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and positive displacement types.
Business Case for types of Flow meters
Special Flow Measurement issues
Allocation and Fiscal Flow Measurement
Flow Meter Provers – Compact and Traditional
Tank Strapping – the level equivalent of flow meter proving
Installation of Flowmeters in Oil and Gas Applications
Weeks 10 and 11
Oil and Gas Valves
Valve types – we can learn about the valve part of control valves from manual valves.
Key issue – leakage ANSI FCI 70-2
Leakage issues with throttling control valves
Leakage issues with on/off control valves
Leakage issues with 3-way control valves
Leakage issues with automated shut down valves (emergency valves)
Control Valves – Valve Bodies, Types, Characteristics, Actuators (Pneumatic, Hydraulic and Electric), Power Failure Modes, Actuator Accessories, Sizing Calculations, Split Range, Bench Set, Trim and associated Material Selection (Corrosion and NACE Applications), Cavitation and Flashing, Noise Calculation and Prediction, Stroking Time Calculations, Rangeability, Ratings, Leak Class, Bonnets, Cryogenic service, High Temperature Valves, Valve Stem Packing and sealing, Fugitive Emission Controls, bypass, Materials, Paint coatings, Severe Service Valves, Fire Safe Valves.
Valve Accessories – Solenoids, Positioners (Pneumatic, Electronic and Smart), Transducers, Position Indicators, Boosters
Double Block and Bleed
Oil and Gas Instrumentation using Hydraulics – Principles and Theory
Hydraulic Principles and theory, Symbols, Hardware, Fluids, Cleanliness, Standards
Wellhead Hydraulic Control Panels
Oil and Gas Electrical and Instrumentation Test and Calibration Equipment
Understand the reasons behind test and calibration, accuracy, hysteresis, stiction, certification,
NIST and Other Standards
Calibrating Smart Instruments
Uncertainty and confidence in Measurement
Project and Revision, and case studies
In the final weeks students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.