Unit Name

INSTRUMENT ENGINEERING

Unit Code

MOG502

Unit Duration

12 weeks

Award

Graduate Diploma of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas)

Duration: 1 year

Master of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas) Duration: 2 years

Year Level

One

Unit Coordinator

Paul Maj and John Westover

Core/Elective

Core

Pre/Co-requisites

Nil

Credit Points

3

Grad Dip total course credit points = 24 (3 credits x 8 (units))

Masters total course credit points = 48

(12 credits (Thesis) + 3 credits x 12 (units))

Mode of Delivery

Combination of modes: Online synchronous lectures; asynchronous discussion groups, videos, remote and cloud-based labs (simulations); web and video conferencing tutorials. High emphasis on personal and group self-study.

Delivery/ Contact Hours per week

Student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week: Lecture 1 hour

Tutorial Lecture 1 hours

Practical / Lab 1 hour (where relevant) Personal Study recommended - 7 hours

Resource Requirements Software

Web & Video conferencing software

Students will be provided with Blackboard Collaborate (or similar) for video and web conferencing. This will allow them to attend lectures, interact with lecturers and fellow students, and use the Remote Lab facility. Students will be required to download the latest version of Java and .NET in order to use these packages.

Skype

For ease of communicating with peers and lecturers, installation of this package is recommended.

Word, PowerPoint and Excel

It is recommended that students install at least a 2007 version of the Microsoft Office. Older versions will work, but sometimes create issues with file compatibility. If individuals are reluctant to use these, they can also use Open Office (www.openoffice.org).

Virus detection

As students are co-operating with people from throughout the world with a multitude of different PCs, it is recommended that they have good quality up-to-date virus detection software installed. The free version of AVG is sufficient. A thorough automated scan of computers at least once a week is recommended.

Learning Management System

EIT uses a state-of-the-art learning management system (Moodle) for lecturing and interacting with lecturers and fellow students. Students can chat, socialize, and collaborate on projects with similarly motivated and enthusiastic course participants.

Computing resource requirements

Computer

Students’ computers should have an Intel Core Duo CPU and 2 Gigabytes of RAM. Hard disk space available should be at least 2 Gigabytes free. If necessary the built-in hard drive can be augmented with an inexpensive USB drive. No particular special graphics card is required. The operating system should be Windows with Windows 7 Service Pack 1 as a minimum.

Internet

An ADSL Internet connection with a minimum speed of 128 kbps down and 64 kbps up is recommended.

Good quality headset and low cost web cam

Students will require a good quality stereo headset with analogue or USB connectors. In addition, a low-cost USB webcam is recommended. Students should budget in the order of

$30 for a headset and $20 for a webcam. This will vary from country to country.

Technical Help

For difficulties with other online materials the lecturer should be contacted. Technical material will be accessible 24/7 through the online portal.

Unit Description and General Aims

Instrument Engineering for Oil and Gas industries is a very complex and diverse discipline in that many different measurement techniques require knowledge of the laws of physics, chemistry and mathematics. This unit covers these in detail along with applicable theory, which is used in industry. It also has particular emphasis on instrumentation used in the Offshore and Onshore Oil and Gas industry, utilising extensive Offshore and Onshore Oil and Gas Engineering experience of Highly Qualified Lecturers. This unit provides practical examples of how the learning can be integrated into “the big picture”.

This unit focusses on the engineering processes in pressure, level, temperature, and flow measurement technology, control valve technology, measurement, calibration and testing, and differentiating between control, safety, and custody transfer measurement and instrumentation.

This unit requires a high level of commitment and effort. It will be hard work and much is expected of students. However being focused on the skills, knowledge and competencies expected of an Oil and Gas Instrument Engineer in Industry it will be worth the effort.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

  1. Determine and apply Units and Conversions used in the Oil and Gas Industry

  2. Analyse and understand the engineering process on pressure, level, temperature, and flow measurement technology

  3. Analyse and understand the engineering process on control valve technology

  4. Apply principles of calibration and testing

  5. Deliver skills, knowledge and competencies on measurement as an Oil and Gas Instrument Engineer in Industry

  6. Understand the difference between measurement and instrumentation for control, measurement and instrumentation for safety, and measurement and instrumentation for custody transfer

    Professional Development

    Completing this unit will add to students professional development/competencies by:

    1. Fostering the personal and professional skills development of students to:

      1. Be adaptable and capable 21st century citizens, who can communicate effectively, work collaboratively, think critically and innovatively solve complex problems.

      2. Equipping individuals with an increased capacity for lifelong learning and professional development.

      3. Planning and organising self and others

      4. Instilling leadership qualities and a capacity for ethical and professional contextualization of knowledge

    2. Enhancing students’ investigatory and research capabilities through:

      1. Solving complex and open-ended engineering problems

      2. Accessing, evaluating and analysing information

      3. Processes and procedures, cause – effect investigations

    3. Developing the engineering application abilities of students through:

      1. Assignments

      2. Labs / practical / case studies / self-study (where applicable)

Graduate Attributes

Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes.

A. Effective Communication

Learning Outcomes (Refer to 2.2)

A1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience.

4, 6

A2. Ability to engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of international cultures.

A, 5

B. Critical Judgement

 

B1. Ability to critically analyse and evaluate complex information and theoretical concepts.

1, 2, 3, 5, B

B2. Ability to innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches with a high level of accountability, in an engineering context.

2,3,4,5,A

C. Design and Problem Solving Skills

 

C1. Cognitive skills to synthesise, evaluate and use information from a broad range of sources to effectively identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.

3, 4

C2. Technical and communication skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering professional practice.

4, 6

C3. Comprehension of the role of technology in society and identified issues in applying engineering technology ethics and impacts; economic; social; environmental and sustainability.

6

D. Science and Engineering Fundamentals

 

D1. Breadth and depth of knowledge of engineering and understanding of future developments.

5, B

D2. Knowledge of ethical standards in relation to professional engineering practice and research.

A

D3. Knowledge of international perspectives in engineering and ability to apply Australian and International Standards.

B, C

E. Information and Research Skills

 

E1. Application of advanced research and planning skills to engineering projects.

4, 5, 6, A, B

E2. Knowledge of research principles and methods in an engineering context.

1, 4, 5, B

Student assessment

Assessment Type

(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic) Examination (specify length and format))

When assessed (eg Week 5)

Weighting (% of total unit marks)

Learning Outcomes Assessed

Assessment 1 Type: Quiz Word length: n/a

Topic examples: Fundamental concepts of pressure, level, and temperature measurement

Week 5

20%

1, 2

Assessment 2

Type: Report (Midterm Project)

[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and proposed solution with concept workings]

Word length: 1000

Topic examples: Fuel Gas Conditioning, Resolution of Flow Metering Error. Determine instrumentation requirements, prepare data sheets, etc.

Week 9

25%

2,4,5

Assessment 3

Type: Report (Final Project)

[If a continuation of the midterm, this should complete the report by adding sections on: workings, implementation, results, verification/validation, conclusion/challenges and recommendations/future work. If this is a new report, all headings from the midterm and the final reports must be included.]

Word length: 2000

Topic examples: Continuation of midterm, or new topic on tying everything together and developing a cascade control loop, including instrument selection and valve selection, determining when instruments from one application can be used for other data management (e.g. custody transfer level instruments can be used for spill management and incident reporting)

Week 12

35%

3, 5, 6

Practical Participation

May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies: E.g. Valve sizing, Simulation or Case study

Continuous

15%

6

Attendance

Continuous

5%

1-6

Prescribed and recommended readings

Required textbook(s)

  1. B. G. Liptak, Instrument Engineers' Handbook, Vol. 1: Process Measurement and Analysis, 4th Edition, CRC Press, 2003

    OR

  2. M. D. Whitt, Successful Instrumentation and Control Systems Design, 2nd Edition, ISA, 2012 (ISBN 978-1-936007-45-5)

Alternative textbook

  • W. Boyes, Instrumentation Reference Book, 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2010 (ISBN 978-0-7506- 8308-1)

    Reference Materials

  • https://www.beamex.net/campaign/Beamex_Book%20-

    %20Ultimate%20Calibration%202nd%20edition.pdf

  • External Notes

  • IDC notes and Reference texts as advised.

  • Other material advised during the lectures

Weekly Content:

Week 1

Issues with Data Management and Units and Conversions used in the Oil and Gas Industry

  1. Data management. An instrument is a data collector, as part of a data management system that is the control system. Understanding the issues of data management can help understanding the issues of not only measurement, but also fitting the instrument into the entire control system. Data Sheets and their role in the instrument lifecycle. Index and Loop Diagrams. NE-107/NE-43

  2. SI and Imperial Units – Many Instruments originate from the USA where Imperial Units are used such as psi. As a result confusion can arise which compromise safety and integrity, there have been over-pressurisation incidents resulting in vessels exploding. Thus this section highlights this.

Week 2

Oil and Gas Pressure Measurement – Principles and Theory

  1. Pressure Measurement Instrumentation

    1. Principles of pressure measurement – Gauge and absolute, pressure ratings – proof pressure

    2. Pressure sources

    3. Differential Pressure

  2. Pressure Measurement Devices and Accessories

    1. Pressure Indicators, snubbers, switches, elements, diaphragm seals and other accessories

    2. Pressure Transducers

    3. Load cells

    4. Pressure Transmitters

    5. Process Take Off, Installation considerations.

  3. Atmospheric pressure with different atmospheres

  4. Tubing

  5. Manifolds, Close Coupling, Monoflanges and Other Accessories

Weeks 3, 4

Oil and Gas Level Measurement – Principles and Theory

  1. Level Measurement Instrumentation

    1. Visual/optical

    2. Capacitance

    3. Magnetic Float

    4. Nucleonic

    5. Buoyancy

    6. Hydrostatic pressure

    7. Differential pressure

    8. Radar and microwave

    9. Ultrasonic

    10. Radiometric

    11. Electromechanical

    12. Density

    13. Bubbler systems

    14. Profiling Techniques

  2. Level Measurement Devices and Accessories

    1. Level transmitters

    2. Level switches

    3. Tank gauging equipment

  3. Issues Related to Level Measurement

    1. Fiscal measurement of level

    2. Interface Level

    3. Profiling techniques

    4. Level calculations – Differential Pressure – Hydrostatic Head

    5. Calculations associated with Radioactive sources.

    6. Interface Level Calculations

    7. Interface Level Issues

    8. Elevation and suppression

    9. Reference legs and sealing liquids

    10. Diaphragm Seals

    11. Installation considerations

    12. Use of Stilling Well

    13. Purging and Heating

    14. Impact on the overall control loop

    15. Tank strapping

    16. ALG Class

Week 5

Oil and Gas Temperature Measurement – Principles and Theory

  1. International Temperature Scales, Deg Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin, Rankine, Degree Absolute

  2. Thermo Electric Effect

  3. Thermodynamics

  4. Thermocouple Principle, Types, Ranges, Materials, Cold Junction Compensation, Extension Leads, Ranges, Thermocouple Tables, Construction

  5. Thermistors - Steinhart–Hart equation, Principle, Self Heating Effects, Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistors (NTC Thermistors), Construction

  6. Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD), Principles, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Resistance v Temperature relationship of Metals, Ranges, Materials, Resistance Thermometer curves, Construction

  7. Liquid filled glass

  8. Bimetallic

  9. Thermowell Construction, Materials, Insertion Length, Vibration Analysis and Fatigue failure (ASME PTC 19.3 TW-2010).

  10. Non-Contacting techniques and Principles– thermal radiation, Infra red, Ranges.

Weeks 6, 7, 8

Oil and Gas Flow Measurement – Principles and Theory

  1. Flow Metering Standards – ISO 5167 - AGA3

  2. Flow Measurement Instrumentation

    1. Differential pressure - Theory – Fluid properties - Bernouilli’s Theorem – Square Law Effect – Orifice Plates – Reynolds Number – Venturi – Pitot Tube – V Cone – Calculations and Sizing, Turndown, Accuracy, Error, Uncertainty, Need for P/T compensation

    2. Restriction Orifice Plates – Principals and Calculations

    3. Positive displacement

    4. Variable area (Rotameter) – Visual and All Metal Type

  3. Preferred Differential Pressure Ranges – effect of flow regime and other parameters

  4. Measurement Based on Mass Flow Rate

    1. Coriolis

    2. Thermal dispersion

  5. Measurement Based on Flow Velocity

    1. Magnetic

    2. Target

    3. Ultrasonic

    4. Vortex

    5. Turbine

  6. Other Types of Flow Measurement

    1. Multiphase flow measurement –API RP86

    2. Wet Gas flow measurement – V Cone Meter

    3. Oscillatory flow measurement

    4. Flare Gas flow measurement

  7. Selection of flowmeters for Oil and Gas Applications

    1. Purpose (custody transfer, safety, machinery protection, general process control, environmental reporting, etc)

    2. Preferences for flow measurement – No Physical Process Connections - Vortex, Coriolis, magnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and positive displacement types.

Week 9

  1. Business Case for types of Flow meters

  2. Special Flow Measurement issues

    1. Flow Computers

    2. Allocation and Fiscal Flow Measurement

    3. Flow Meter Provers – Compact and Traditional

    4. Tank Strapping – the level equivalent of flow meter proving

    5. Installation of Flowmeters in Oil and Gas Applications

Weeks 10 and 11

  1. Oil and Gas Valves

    • Valve types – we can learn about the valve part of control valves from manual valves.

    • Key issue – leakage ANSI FCI 70-2

      1. Leakage issues with throttling control valves

      2. Leakage issues with on/off control valves

      3. Leakage issues with 3-way control valves

      4. Leakage issues with automated shut down valves (emergency valves)

    • Control Valves – Valve Bodies, Types, Characteristics, Actuators (Pneumatic, Hydraulic and Electric), Power Failure Modes, Actuator Accessories, Sizing Calculations, Split Range, Bench Set, Trim and associated Material Selection (Corrosion and NACE Applications), Cavitation and Flashing, Noise Calculation and Prediction, Stroking Time Calculations, Rangeability, Ratings, Leak Class, Bonnets, Cryogenic service, High Temperature Valves, Valve Stem Packing and sealing, Fugitive Emission Controls, bypass, Materials, Paint coatings, Severe Service Valves, Fire Safe Valves.

    • Valve Accessories – Solenoids, Positioners (Pneumatic, Electronic and Smart), Transducers, Position Indicators, Boosters

    • Double Block and Bleed

  2. Oil and Gas Instrumentation using Hydraulics – Principles and Theory

    • Hydraulic Principles and theory, Symbols, Hardware, Fluids, Cleanliness, Standards

    • Wellhead Hydraulic Control Panels

  3. Oil and Gas Electrical and Instrumentation Test and Calibration Equipment

    • Calibration Terminology

    • Understand the reasons behind test and calibration, accuracy, hysteresis, stiction, certification,

    • Calibration frequency

    • NIST and Other Standards

    • Calibrating Smart Instruments

    • Uncertainty and confidence in Measurement

  4. Future Technologies

Week 12

Project and Revision, and case studies

In the final weeks students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.