Unit Name

POWER SYSTEM QUALITY AND HARMONICS

Unit Code

MEE603

Unit Duration

12 weeks

Award

Master of Engineering (Electrical Systems) Duration: 2 years

Year Level

Two

Unit Creator/Reviewer

Prof Akhtar Kalam (Ian Bitterlin / Steve Steyn)

Core/Elective

Core

Pre/Co-requisites

None

Credit Points

3

Masters total course credit points = 48

(3 credits x 12 (units) + 12 credits (Thesis))

Mode of Delivery

On-Campus or Online

Unit Workload

10 hours per week: Lecture - 1 hour

Tutorial Lecture - 1 hours

Practical / Lab - 1 hour (where applicable)

Personal Study recommended - 7 hours (guided and unguided)

Unit Description and General Aims

The increased use of power electronic components within the distribution system and the reliance on renewable energy sources which have converters as interface between the source and the power system lead to power quality problems for the operation of machines, transformers, capacitors and power systems. This unit aims to cover the subject of power quality which is very broad by nature. It covers all aspects of power system engineering from transmission and distribution level analyses to end-user problems. Students will develop an understanding of why electric power quality has become the concern of utilities, end users, architects and civil engineers as well as manufacturers.

Power quality of power systems affects all connected electrical and electronic equipment, and is a measure of deviations in voltage, current, frequency, temperature, force, and torque of particular supply systems and their components. In recent years there has been considerable increase in nonlinear loads, in particular distributed loads such as computers, TV monitors and lighting. These draw harmonic currents which have detrimental effects including communication interference, loss of reliability, increased operating costs, equipment overheating, machine, transformer and capacitor failures, and inaccurate power metering. This subject is pertinent to engineers involved with power systems, electrical machines, electronic equipment, computers and manufacturing equipment.

This unit aims to ensure that power engineering students can develop solutions to power quality problems of electrical machines and power systems, from gaining knowledge of modelling, simulation and measuring techniques for transformers, machines, capacitors and power systems.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

  1. Attain the required theoretical knowledge on power quality and harmonics.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  2. Demonstrate the ability to calculate first-order harmonic distortion from a given harmonic current and linear source impedance.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  3. Demonstrate the ability to simulate a complex continuous waveform using sinusoids of varying frequency, amplitude and phase angle.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  4. Establish through the studies the relationship between harmonic spectrum, Total Harmonic Current Distortion, source impedance and resultant Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion.

    Bloom’s Level 6

  5. Draw and present conclusions on the effect that a given type of non-linear load harmonic spectrum will have on voltage sources such as transformers.

Bloom’s Level 6

Bloom’s Taxonomy

The cognitive domain levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy:

Bloom’s

Level

Bloom’s

Category

Description

1

Knowledge

Recall, define and list facts, concepts, methods, terminologies, theories and structures.

2

Comprehension

Demonstrate understanding by comparing, organizing, describing, translating, interpreting, paraphrasing, explaining and distinguishing.

3

Application

Use knowledge to solve problems, identify connections and show

   

relationships, in context.

4

Analysis

Examine information, breakdown a problem, determine relationships and causes, make inferences, classify and infer from evidence.

5

Synthesis

Produce a pattern from relationships, propose operations, formulate a design, compose a hypothesis, reassemble information, construct, plan, invent, predict and create.

6

Evaluation

Make judgements based on evidence and external criteria, determine best practice, optimise, validate ideas, judge and critique, assess, valuate and make recommendations.

Engineers Australia

The Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Professional Engineer, approved as of 2013. This table is referenced in the mapping of graduate attributes to learning outcomes and via the learning outcomes to student assessment.

Stage 1 Competencies and Elements of Competency

1.

Knowledge and Skill Base

1.1

Comprehensive, theory based understanding of the underpinning natural and physical sciences and the engineering fundamentals applicable to the engineering discipline.

1.2

Conceptual understanding of the mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics, and computer and information sciences which underpin the engineering discipline.

1.3

In-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge within the engineering discipline.

1.4

Discernment of knowledge development and research directions within the engineering discipline.

1.5

Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the engineering discipline.

1.6

Understanding of the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of sustainable engineering practice in the specific discipline.

2.

Engineering Application Ability

2.1

Application of established engineering methods to complex engineering problem solving.

2.2

Fluent application of engineering techniques, tools and resources.

2.3

Application of systematic engineering synthesis and design processes.

2.4

Application of systematic approaches to the conduct and management of engineering projects.

3.

Professional and Personal Attributes

3.1

Ethical conduct and professional accountability.

3.2

Effective oral and written communication in professional and lay domains.

3.3

Creative, innovative and pro-active demeanour.

3.4

Professional use and management of information.

3.5

Orderly management of self, and professional conduct.

3.6

Effective team membership and team leadership.

Graduate Attributes

Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes aligned to the AQF Level 9 criteria, Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Professional Engineer and the Washington Accord and the Program Level Outcomes (PLO):

Graduate Attributes / Program Level Outcomes (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Professional and Personal Development)

EA Stage 1 Competencies

Learning Outcomes

A. Effective Communication (PLO 1)

A1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience.

2.2, 3.2

1, 2, 3

A2. Ability to professionally manage oneself, teams, information and projects and engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of international cultures in leadership, team and individual roles.

2.4, 3.2, 3.4,

3.5, 3.6

 

B. Critical Judgement (PLO 2)

B1. Ability to critically analyse and evaluate complex information and theoretical concepts.

1.1, 1.2, 1.3,

2.1

1, 4, 5

B2. Ability to creatively, proactively and innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches with a high level of accountability, in an engineering context.

1.5, 2.1, 3.3,

3.4

5

C. Design and Problem Solving Skills (PLO 3)

C1. Cognitive skills to synthesise, evaluate and use information from a broad range of sources to effectively identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.

1.5, 2.1, 2.3

1, 4, 5

C2. Technical and communication skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering professional practice.

2.2, 2.3

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

C3. Comprehension of the role of technology in society and identified issues in applying engineering technology ethics and impacts; economic; social; environmental and sustainability.

1.5, 1.6, 3.1

 

D. Science and Engineering Fundamentals (PLO 4)

D1. Breadth and depth of mathematics, science, computer technology and

1.1, 1.2, 1.3,

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

specialist engineering knowledge and understanding of future developments.

1.4

 

D2. Knowledge of ethical standards in relation to professional engineering practice and research.

1.6, 3.1, 3.5

 

D3. Knowledge of international perspectives in engineering and ability to apply various national and International Standards.

1.5, 1.6, 2.4,

3.4

1, 4

E. Information and Research Skills (PLO 5)

E1. Application of advanced research and planning skills to engineering projects.

1.4, 2.4, 3.6

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

E2. Knowledge of research principles and methods in an engineering context.

1.4, 1.6

1, 2, 3, 5

Unit Content and Learning Outcomes to Program Level Outcomes (PLO) via Bloom’s Taxonomy Level

This table details the mapping of the unit content and unit learning outcomes to the PLOs and graduate attributes at the corresponding Bloom’s Taxonomy level, specified by the number in the table.

 

Integrated Specification /

Program Learning Outcomes

PLO 1

PLO 2

PLO 3

PLO 4

PLO 5

Unit Learning Outcomes

LO1

5

5

5

5

5

LO2

5

-

5

5

5

LO3

5

-

5

5

5

LO4

-

6

6

6

6

LO5

-

6

6

6

6

Unit Study

Assessments

6

6

6

6

6

Lectures/Tutorials

6

6

6

6

6

 

Max Bloom’s level

6

6

6

6

6

Total PLO coverage

5

5

7

7

7

Student assessment

Assessment Type

(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic) Examination (specify length and format))

When assessed (eg Week 5)

Weighting (% of total unit marks)

Learning Outcomes Assessed

Assessment 1

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Role Play / Self-Assessment / Presentation

Topic examples: Power quality and harmonics

Week 5

20%

1, 2

Assessment 2

Type: Report / Research / Paper / Case Study / Site Visit

/ Problem analysis / Project / Professional recommendation

Example: Report (Midterm Project)

[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and proposed solution with concept workings]

Word length: 1000

Topic examples: Sources of harmonic currents and impedance

Week 8

25%

1, 2, 3

Assessment 3

Type: Report (Final Project)

[If a continuation of the midterm, this should complete the report by adding sections on: workings, implementation, results, verification/validation, conclusion/challenges and recommendations/future work. If this is a new report, all headings from the midterm and the final reports must be included.]

Word length: 2000

Topic examples: Continuation of midterm by including mitigation

Final Week

35%

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Practical Participation

Type: May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies

Example: Simulate a complex continuous waveform

Continuous

15%

3

Attendance / Tutorial Participation

Example: Presentation, discussion, group work, exercises, self-assessment/reflection, case study analysis, application.

Continuous

5%

1-5

Prescribed and recommended readings

Required textbook(s)

  1. J. Arrillaga and N.R. Watson, Power System Harmonics, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2003 OR

  2. De la Rosa et el. on power quality OR

  3. Dugan and Kusko

Reference Materials

  • IDC / EIT notes and Reference texts as advised.

  • Other material advised during the lectures

Unit Content

One topic is delivered per contact week, with the exception of part-time 24-week units, where one topic is delivered every two weeks.

Topics 1 and 2

Voltage harmonics – why are they a problem?

  1. Heating effects

  2. Counter torque effects in motors

  3. Mal-operation of plant and machinery, including Power factor Correction capacitor banks

  4. Point of common coupling – limitations placed by the DNO

  5. The relationship between harmonic current distortion and voltage distortion

Topics 3 and 4

Theory

  1. Fourier Theorem

  2. Harmonic order, magnitude and phase-angle

  3. Harmonic spectrum

  4. Phase rotation – forward, neutral and reverse

  5. Summation, negation and cancellation – mixed loads

  6. Numerical computation and simulation

  7. Total Harmonic Distortion and the limitations of its use without the harmonic spectrum

  8. Power Factor and Displacement Factor

Topics 5 and 6

Sources of harmonic currents

  1. Transformers and generating alternators

  2. Non-linear loads

  3. Fans, pumps and elevators – the trend for energy efficiency increases harmonic generation

  4. Industrial processes – arc-welding, resistance-welding and electric furnaces

  5. Rectifiers, UPS and Variable Speed AC Drives

  6. ICT and other microprocessor based electronic loads

  7. Ballasted electronic lighting

Topics 7 and 8

Source Impedance

  1. Impedance relationship to frequency

  2. Transformers

  3. Alternators and rotating machines

Topics 9 and 10

Mitigation

  1. Conductor resistance, cross-section and impedance

  2. Neutral conductor amperage

  3. Passive filters

  4. Active filters

  5. K-rated distribution transformers

  6. Isolation transformers

Topics 11 and 12

Project and Revision

In the final week students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work, to clarify any outstanding issues, and to work on finalising the major assessment report.

The Engineering Institute of Technology (EIT) is dedicated to ensuring our students receive a world-class education and gain skills they can immediately implement in the workplace upon graduation. Our staff members uphold our ethos of honesty and integrity, and we stand by our word because it is our bond. Our students are also expected to carry this attitude throughout their time at our institute, and into their careers.