Unit Name

OVERHEAD LINE AND SYSTEM DESIGN

Unit Code

MEE503

Unit Duration

12 weeks

Award

Graduate Diploma of Engineering (Electrical Systems) Duration: 1 year

Master of Engineering (Electrical Systems) Duration: 2 years

Year Level

One

Unit Creator/Reviewer

Prof. Trevor Blackburn

Core/Elective

Core

Pre/Co-requisites

Nil

Credit Points

3

Grad Dip total course credit points = 24 (3 credits x 8 (units))

Masters total course credit points = 48

(3 credits x 12 (units) + 12 credits (Thesis))

Mode of Delivery

On-Campus or Online

Unit Workload

10 hours per week: Lecture - 1 hour

Tutorial Lecture - 1 hours

Practical / Lab - 1 hour (where applicable)

Personal Study recommended - 7 hours (guided and unguided)

Unit Description and General Aims

The predominant means of electrical power transfer is by the overhead line. Overhead lines range in voltage from the basic distribution levels of 110 and 230 V up to the highest modern transmission voltages of 1000 kV. While overhead lines have been almost always AC, HVDC is now an emerging force in OH line systems. However this Unit will concentrate primarily on AC overhead lines for the full range of transmission and distribution voltages.

The scope of the unit will cover three phase lines, single phase lines and SWER lines and the ancillary equipment that is part of the overall overhead line system. Line conductor types will be covered in detail and standard separations outlined. The coverage will include conductor line characteristics, current carrying capacity, sag and tension calculations and OH line insulators. Detailed analyses of creepage path and flashover paths as well as electric and magnetic fields will be done.

This unit aims to cover power transfer along lines, the design of small pole mounted and pad mounted substations and the use of HV fuses, auto-reclose breakers and sectionalisers. Instrument transformers will be covered and the range of typical faults on OH lines will be discussed with their impact on protection. High impedance arcing faults will be discussed and the use of earth fault impedances and modern active Peterson coils will be included. Propagation of overvoltage transients along the lines will also be covered.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

  1. Analyse and design overhead line systems with detailed knowledge of the various parameters involved.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  2. Calculate the power transfer capacity of the line and perform thermal energy balance calculations.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  3. Design the insulator requirements of the lines for the ambient conditions.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  4. Apply the characteristics of overvoltage protection for protection against lightning strikes to the lines. Design of OV protection devices for equipment in substations and for LV equipment.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  5. Perform fault calculations for symmetrical and asymmetrical faults and design and specify appropriate protection devices to detect and isolate faults.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  6. Design reactive compensation systems to improve voltage stability and to improve losses.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  7. Specify the various maintenance procedures required for the lines and ancillary equipment such as transformers and poles.

    Bloom’s Level 5

  8. Apply software packages to calculate line characteristics and their distribution and to determine electric fields and corona susceptibility.

Bloom’s Level 5

Bloom’s Taxonomy

The cognitive domain levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy:

Bloom’s

Level

Bloom’s

Category

Description

1

Knowledge

Recall, define and list facts, concepts, methods, terminologies, theories and

   

structures.

2

Comprehension

Demonstrate understanding by comparing, organizing, describing, translating, interpreting, paraphrasing, explaining and distinguishing.

3

Application

Use knowledge to solve problems, identify connections and show relationships, in context.

4

Analysis

Examine information, breakdown a problem, determine relationships and causes, make inferences, classify and infer from evidence.

5

Synthesis

Produce a pattern from relationships, propose operations, formulate a design, compose a hypothesis, reassemble information, construct, plan, invent, predict and create.

6

Evaluation

Make judgements based on evidence and external criteria, determine best practice, optimise, validate ideas, judge and critique, assess, valuate and make recommendations.

Engineers Australia

The Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Professional Engineer, approved as of 2013. This table is referenced in the mapping of graduate attributes to learning outcomes and via the learning outcomes to student assessment.

Stage 1 Competencies and Elements of Competency

1.

Knowledge and Skill Base

1.1

Comprehensive, theory based understanding of the underpinning natural and physical sciences and the engineering fundamentals applicable to the engineering discipline.

1.2

Conceptual understanding of the mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics, and computer and information sciences which underpin the engineering discipline.

1.3

In-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge within the engineering discipline.

1.4

Discernment of knowledge development and research directions within the engineering discipline.

1.5

Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the engineering discipline.

1.6

Understanding of the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of sustainable engineering practice in the specific discipline.

2.

Engineering Application Ability

2.1

Application of established engineering methods to complex engineering problem solving.

2.2

Fluent application of engineering techniques, tools and resources.

2.3

Application of systematic engineering synthesis and design processes.

2.4

Application of systematic approaches to the conduct and management of engineering projects.

3.

Professional and Personal Attributes

3.1

Ethical conduct and professional accountability.

3.2

Effective oral and written communication in professional and lay domains.

3.3

Creative, innovative and pro-active demeanour.

3.4

Professional use and management of information.

3.5

Orderly management of self, and professional conduct.

3.6

Effective team membership and team leadership.

Graduate Attributes

Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes aligned to the AQF Level 9 criteria, Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Professional Engineer and the Washington Accord and the Program Level Outcomes (PLO):

Graduate Attributes / Program Level Outcomes (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Professional and Personal Development)

EA Stage 1 Competencies

Learning Outcomes

A. Effective Communication (PLO 1)

A1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience.

2.2, 3.2

1, 2, 5

A2. Ability to professionally manage oneself, teams, information and projects and engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of international cultures in leadership, team and individual roles.

2.4, 3.2, 3.4,

3.5, 3.6

 

B. Critical Judgement (PLO 2)

B1. Ability to critically analyse and evaluate complex information and theoretical concepts.

1.1, 1.2, 1.3,

2.1

3, 4, 6, 7, 8

B2. Ability to creatively, proactively and innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches with a high level of accountability, in an engineering context.

1.5, 2.1, 3.3,

3.4

3, 4, 5, 6

C. Design and Problem Solving Skills (PLO 3)

C1. Cognitive skills to synthesise, evaluate and use information from a broad range of sources to effectively identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.

1.5, 2.1, 2.3

1

C2. Technical and communication skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering professional practice.

2.2, 2.3

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

7, 8

C3. Comprehension of the role of technology in society and identified issues in applying engineering technology ethics and impacts; economic; social; environmental and sustainability.

1.5, 1.6, 3.1

 

D. Science and Engineering Fundamentals (PLO 4)

D1. Breadth and depth of mathematics, science, computer technology and specialist engineering knowledge and understanding of future developments.

1.1, 1.2, 1.3,

1.4

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

D2. Knowledge of ethical standards in relation to professional engineering practice and research.

1.6, 3.1, 3.5

1, 7

D3. Knowledge of international perspectives in engineering and ability to apply various national and International Standards.

1.5, 1.6, 2.4,

3.4

1, 6, 7, 8

E. Information and Research Skills (PLO 5)

E1. Application of advanced research and planning skills to engineering projects.

1.4, 2.4, 3.6

1, 6, 7

E2. Knowledge of research principles and methods in an engineering context.

1.4, 1.6

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

7, 8

Unit Content and Learning Outcomes to Program Level Outcomes (PLO) via Bloom’s Taxonomy Level

This table details the mapping of the unit content and unit learning outcomes to the PLOs and graduate attributes at the corresponding Bloom’s Taxonomy level, specified by the number in the table.

 

Integrated Specification /

Program Learning Outcomes

PLO 1

PLO 2

PLO 3

PLO 4

PLO 5

Unit Learning Outcomes

LO1

5

-

5

5

5

LO2

5

-

5

5

5

LO3

-

5

5

5

5

LO4

-

5

5

5

5

LO5

5

5

5

5

5

LO6

-

5

5

5

5

LO7

-

5

5

5

5

LO8

-

5

5

5

5

Unit Study

Assessments

5

5

5

5

5

Lectures/Tutorials

5

5

5

5

5

 

Max Bloom’s level

5

5

5

5

5

Total PLO coverage

5

8

10

10

10

Student assessment

Assessment Type

(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic) Examination (specify length and format))

When assessed (eg Week 5)

Weighting (% of total unit marks)

Learning Outcomes Assessed

Assessment 1

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Role Play / Self-Assessment / Presentation

Topic examples: Fundamental concepts of energy transfer efficiencies; AC&DC; insulators.

Week 5

20%

1, 2

Assessment 2

Type: Report / Research / Paper / Case Study / Site Visit

/ Problem analysis / Project / Professional recommendation

Example: Report (Midterm Project)

[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and methodology / conclusions]

Word length: 1000

Topic examples: “The potential impact of grass fires under HV power lines” or “The benefits to be gained from the use of modern high temperature, low sag conductors” or

“The energy transfer efficiency of OH line systems (including transformers) and ways of monitoring losses on-line”

Week 8

25%

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Assessment 3

Type: Report (Final Project)

[If a continuation of the midterm, this should complete the report by adding sections on: methodology, implementation / evaluation, verification / validation, conclusion / challenges and recommendations / future work. If this is a new report, all headings from the midterm and the final reports must be included.]

Word length: 2000

Topic examples: Continuation of midterm, OR OH line susceptibility and maintenance.

Final Week

35%

6, 7, 8

Practical Participation

Example: May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies

Example: Calculate line characteristics

Continuous

15%

8

Attendance / Tutorial Participation

Example: Presentation, discussion, group work, exercises, self-assessment/reflection, case study analysis, application.

Continuous

5%

1-8

Prescribed and recommended readings

Required textbook(s)

  1. T. A. Short, Electric Power Distribution Handbook, CRC Press, 2004 OR

  2. J. D. Glover and M.S. Sarma, Power System Analysis and Design, 3rd ed., Brooks/Cole, 2002 OR

  3. Cigre SCB2, Overhead Lines, Cigre, 2014 OR

  4. A.P. Saakis Meliopolis, Power System Grounding and Transients, Marcel Dekker, 1988

Reference Materials

  • Examples include but not limited to: IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, IEEE Electrification Magazine, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery

  • IDC notes and Reference texts as advised.

  • Other material advised during the lectures

Unit Content

One topic is delivered per contact week, with the exception of part-time 24-week units, where one topic is delivered every two weeks.

Topics 1 and 2

Overvoltages and insulation in power systems

  1. Historical developments of power lines

  2. AC and DC lines and efficiency

  3. AC Line parameters

  4. Equivalent circuits of lines

  5. Power transfer

Topics 3 and 4

Impact of transient OVs on windings

  1. Operating voltages and limitations

  2. Surge propagation on OH lines

  3. Reflection and transmission coefficients of travelling waves

  4. Switching overvoltages

Topics 5 and 6

Insulation properties and protection

  1. Lightning protection of lines

  2. Direct and indirect injection of lightning impulses

  3. Use of overhead earth wires

  4. Use of surge arresters and similar devices

Topics 7 and 8

Current carrying capacity of lines

  1. Heat generation in lines (Ohmic losses and skin effect)

  2. Heat loss mechanisms (natural and forced convection, radiation)

  3. Probabilistic calculations

  4. Monitoring of lines for continuous rating determination and for losses

Topics 9 and 10

Other equipment and protection for distribution lines

  1. OCRs, ACRs, sectionalisers and transformers

  2. Faults in distribution line systems

  3. High impedance faults and detection

Topic 11

Maintenance of lines and ancillaries

  1. Poles, transformers, surge arresters

  2. Insulators, contamination and cleaning methods

Topic 12

Project and Revision

In the final week students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work, to clarify any outstanding issues, and to work on finalising the major assessment report.

The Engineering Institute of Technology (EIT) is dedicated to ensuring our students receive a world-class education and gain skills they can immediately implement in the workplace upon graduation. Our staff members uphold our ethos of honesty and integrity, and we stand by our word because it is our bond. Our students are also expected to carry this attitude throughout their time at our institute, and into their careers.