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Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD) are a fundamental part of the safety systems associated with oil and gas, utility and other hazardous processes. Associated with these systems are specific valves which are used to isolate and blowdown the processes. These are referred to as Shutdown (SDV) and Blowdown (BDV) Valves respectively. Under emergency situations it is critical that these valves operate correctly. Thus the engineering of the valves and their associated actuators is paramount in ensuring plant safety. They must meet the Fire Safe and Reliability criteria determined by IEC16508 and IEC16511. This Professional Certificate of Competency (PCC) covers the requirements in detail.
In addition, the course addresses Severe Service Valves and Wellhead Choke Valves. Severe Service Valves are required where the process can cause damage to conventional valves through erosion, high noise, cavitation, high vibration, possible mechanical damage to the valve trim, other components and the process equipment around the valve. These valves are generally specialist designs that overcome these issues by "smart" design.
Basic concepts of SDV/BDV valves and their use as part of an Emergency Shutdown System
The requirements of safety standards applicable to SDV/BDV valves – IEC16508 / IEC16511
SIL levels, failure rates, MTBF, hardware fault tolerance, avoiding systematic failures, failure to operate on demand, redundancy
Reliability requirements of SDV/BDV valves
Valve cycle times
Applicable codes and regulations
Definitions and terminology
Full bore ball valve
Reduced bore valve – Sizing considerations apply
Control valves (special considerations apply)
Linear versus rotary
Valve sizing considerations – liquid and gas
Maximum noise calculations
Material selection – Body, trim, seals, O-Rings, gaskets,
Valve end connection options – Flanged/Clamplock
Leak rates – Maximum allowable seat leakage, maximum allowable backseat leakage
Fire safe valves, standards, codes and tests
Types of actuators – Pneumatic /Hydraulic/Electric/Spring Return/Dual Action/ Scotch Yoke
Selection – Prolonged position (long stand still) break torque requirement
Torque requirements for blowdown valves – Spring start to open torque, opening torque, running torque, start to close (air start torque), reseat torque (end of close stroke)
Torque requirements for shutdown valves – Spring start to close torque, closing torque, running torque, start to open (air start torque), reseat torque (end of open stroke)
Stem shear torque
Minimising size on offshore applications – Dual acting hydraulic
Maximum operating pressure and maximum allowable working pressure
Actuator dimension limitations
Pneumatic hookups – Closed loop breathing systems
Hydraulic systems for remote operation of SDV/BDV valves
Fire safe actuators and fire blankets
Preparation of a detailed technical specification
Datasheets for SDV/BDV
Accessories for SDV / BDV – Solenoid valves, redundant solenoid valves, exhaust valves, smart positioners, position switches and indicators
Important details for purchase orders – Handling and transportation, spare requirements, quality assurance requirements, certification of materials, supplier documentation requirements, instructions to suppliers, weight control (offshore)
Protective coating specification
“As Built” updates to documentation
Testing – Performance testing, leak test, verification of fire safe testing, inspector competency
Commissioning of SDV/BDV valves – Important considerations during pressure testing and flushing, construction waste and sea water issues.
Failure to operate on demand - Jerky operation, slow operation, failure to fully open or close, valve leakage
Operational performance testing of SDV/BDV valves - Proof testing periods, reliability centred maintenance techniques, partial stroke testing
The use of “Smart Positioners” to verify valve status
Maintenance of SDV/BDV Valves – Preparation of a standard for factory overhaul of SDV/BDV valves to return valve and actuator to “as new” specification
Specific requirements and description of Riser Emergency Shutdown Valves (RESDV), the associated systems and parts – These valves are high criticality devices – Specific consideration of RESDV location
Ensuring the valve design assures the ability of valve to close on demand independently of the length of time the valve has been in service
Reopening criteria – “Locked closed” until authorised via independent master control panel
Achieving maximum reliability
Ensuring review of common mode failure points – failure modes effects and criticality analysis
RESDV valve selection - Engineering to ensure maximum reliability, availability and durability
Actuator requirements – Spring return, closing thrust requirement
Valve closure rate
Protection for Fire, explosion and impact, active and passive fire protection, RESDV fire safe time period, fire protection failure criteria specific engineering requirements
Ensuring fail safe operation – Protection of control lines, redundancy of control lines
Factory witness testing – Full pressure and leakage test, competency of inspecting test verification engineer
Specific considerations for large valves requiring double acting hydraulic actuators
Testing objectives - Partial and full closure tests, leakage test, failure to operate on demand or within required specification actions
Inspection and testing of RESDV in operation; partial stroke testing considerations, test record, proof testing time periods, inspection procedures
Specific requirements and description of HIPPS
Standards and regulations pertaining to HIPPS, IEC16508/IEC16511
The advantages of using HIPPS – Lower pressure rating of headers, flare system and piping
The disadvantages of HIPPS
HIPPS device integrity and architecture
Mechanical and electric HIPPS
Redundancy of devices
Safety Integrity Levels (SIL) of HIPPS – Determining the required SIL level, verification of SIL with Markov models, fault tree analysis and other methods
Design of HIPPS in accordance with IEC16511 and justification associated with API521
HIPPS hazard analysis - “What-if” analysis; “What-if”/checklist analysis; Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP); Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA); Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), or Event Tree Analysis (ETA)
Preparation of a HIPPS specification and datasheet
Subsea HIPPS – API RP 17O recommended practice for subsea High Integrity Pressure Protection System (HIPPS)
Common cause failures study
The need for a safety requirement specification
Maintenance diagnostics and smart positioners
Maintenance of HIPPS
Ongoing change management of documentation, design, operation, maintenance, and testing to ensure compliance with regulations and standards
Competency of Personnel working on HIPPS
Understanding and recognising the need for a severe service control valve
Identifying root causes for problems and selecting the correct technology to rectify
Severe service control valve applications
Severe service valve designs
Sizing severe service valves
Specifying control valves for severe service applications
Preparation of a severe service control valve specification and datasheet
Commissioning and maintaining severe service control valves
Specific hookups for severe service control valve applications
Accessories for severe service control valve
Oil and gas surface and subsurface wellhead choke valves
Actuators – Stepping and linear
Preparation of a typical choke valve design specification and datasheet – Process data / Production profile / Service conditions / Wellstream conditions / Mechanical requirements
Design requirements – Standards, valve body, trim, actuator, positioner, accessories
Test and certification requirements
Calculations and sizing
Noise calculations and standards
Smart positioner option
Choke valve orientation and sizes
Provision for marine conditions
Choke valve maintenance and inspection – Criticality of regular inspection, FMECA
Use of predictive instrumentation to assess erosion / corrosion, sand and erosion monitoring
Proof testing and maintenance scheduling
Common choke valve problems and solutions – Corrosion, erosion, cavitation, leaking
Subsea choke valves
NB: The course description of all EIT "Certificate" courses has been changed to "Professional Certificate of Competency". Some course brochures are not yet updated. The actual certificate received by successful students will include the new title.
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In order to meet the exacting demands of the oil and gas, mining, manufacturing and downstream processing industries, modern plants are equipped with systems and devices which are needed to measure and regulate variables such as temperature, pressure, flow, humidity, liquid level, velocity and density. Industrial Automation provides the technology to control and monitor a process plant using such concepts as feedback, cascade, feedforward and advanced process control. Here at the Engineering Institute of Technology (EIT), we have developed industry-focused programs in the form of vocational diplomas, advanced diplomas and graduate certificates, all the way up to Masters level in the higher education sector.
There is a critical shortage of automation, instrumentation and control engineers, technicians and technologists around the world now due to the retirement, restructuring and rapid growth in new technologies and industries. The respected International Society of Automation (ISA) organization estimated that at least 15,000 new automation engineers are needed annually in the USA alone.
In keeping with the philosophy of EIT, students in this school are exposed to the practical, up-to-the-minute knowledge and skills demanded by leading industries worldwide, with online instrumentation courses. EIT does not just cater to a generic student body, instead all of our online instrumentation courses are specific to industry. The programs cover a large range of topics and are suited to anyone needing an intensive and practical look at all facets of industrial automation, instrumentation and process control.
The short courses that form part of EIT's professional development series are designed to provide students with critical knowledge and practical tools that can be immediately applied to the workplace. They are ideal to up-skill and/or cross-skill in a particular area or technology and are not accredited programs.
Students in EIT's School of Industrial Automation, Instrumentation and Process Control study subjects which include: process control, instrumentation, control valves, process plant layout and piping design, tuning of process loops, SCADA, PLCs, advanced process control (APC), boiler control, hazardous areas, safety instrumentation (IEC 61511 and IEC 61508), HAZOPs, industrial data communications, networking, deviceNet and Fieldbus, industrial wireless, radio telemetry systems, shielding/EMC/EMI, and noise reduction.
I: Vocational Education & Training (VET) program
II: Higher Education program
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