Engineering Institute of Technology

 Unit Name ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT THEORY AND ANALYSIS Unit Code BEE106S

 Unit Duration Term Award Bachelor of Science (Engineering)   Duration 3 years Year Level One Unit Creator/Reviewer Core/Sub-discipline Sub-discipline Pre/Co-requisites BSC101C, BSC102C Credit Points 3   Total Program Credit Points 81 (27 x 3) Mode of Delivery Online or on-campus. Unit Workload (Total student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week) Pre-recordings / Lecture – 1.5 hour Tutorial – 1.5 hours Guided Labs / Group work / Assessments – 2 hours Personal Study (recommended) - 5 hours

# Unit Description and General Aims

The objective of this unit is to familiarise the students with the various elements of electrical circuits and the behaviour of circuits when connected to a power source. Information covered in this unit will include: the fundamentals of DC and AC circuits; the measurement of voltage, current, power, resistance; and, other basic electrical concepts. Additionally, the various circuit combinations, mathematical methods for resolving DC and AC circuits, calculations for AC circuits involving the use of complex numbers in Cartesian and polar forms, the use of various circuit theorems, the maximum power transfer theorem, and the basics of resonance and harmonics in complex waveforms, will also be discussed.

# Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

1. Explain the different passive components found in electrical circuits and their behaviour.

2. Perform calculations involving simple circuits in DC networks including the behaviour under sudden voltage change conditions.

3. Explain the behaviour of passive components in AC circuits powered by single phase AC supply.

4. Perform calculations in AC circuits using polar and Cartesian systems (involving complex numbers) and applying various circuit theorems to solve complex networks.

5. Explain the analysis of complex waveforms and analyse the frequency components in commonly encountered non-sinusoidal waveforms using numerical methods.

6. Discuss the principles of measurement of electrical parameters using electrical instruments, bridges, and applications of electromagnetism.

# Professional Development

Completing this unit may add to students professional development/competencies by:

1. Fostering personal and professional skills and attributes in order to:

1. Conduct work in a professionally diligent, accountable and ethical manner.

2. Effectively use oral and written communication in personal and professional domains.

3. Foster applicable creative thinking, critical thinking and problem solving skills.

4. Develop initiative and engagement in lifelong learning and professional development.

5. Enhance collaboration outcomes and performance in dynamic team roles.

6. Effectively plan, organise, self-manage and manage others.

7. Professionally utilise and manage information.

8. Enhance technologist literacy and apply contextualised technologist skills.

2. Enhance investigatory and research capabilities in order to:

1. Develop an understanding of systematic, fundamental scientific, mathematic principles, numerical analysis techniques and statistics applicable to technologists.

2. Access, evaluate and analyse information on technologist processes, procedures, investigations and the discernment of technologist knowledge development.

3. Foster an in-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge, computer science, engineering design practice and contextual factors applicable to technologists.

4. Solve basic and open-ended engineering technologist problems.

5. Understand the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds associated with sustainable engineering practice.

3. Develop engineering application abilities in order to:

1. Apply established engineering methods to broadly-defined technologist problem solving.

2. Apply engineering technologist techniques, tool and resources.

3. Apply systematic technologist synthesis and design processes.

4. Systematically conduct and manage technologist projects, work assignments, testing and experimentation.

Engineers Australia

The Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologists, approved as of 2013. This table is referenced in the mapping of graduate attributes to learning outcomes and via the learning outcomes to student assessment.

 Stage 1 Competencies and Elements of Competency 1. Knowledge and Skill Base 1.1 Systematic, theory based understanding of the underpinning natural and physical sciences and the engineering fundamentals applicable to the technology domain. 1.2 Conceptual understanding of the, mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics, and computer and information sciences which underpin the technology domain. 1.3 In-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge within the technology domain. 1.4 Discernment of knowledge development within the technology domain. 1.5 Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the technology domain. 1.6 Understanding of the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of sustainable engineering practice in the technology domain. 2. Engineering Application Ability 2.1 Application of established engineering methods to broadly-defined problem solving within the technology domain. 2.2 Application of engineering techniques, tools and resources within the technology domain. 2.3 Application of systematic synthesis and design processes within the technology domain. 2.4 Application of systematic approaches to the conduct and management of projects within the technology domain. 3. Professional and Personal Attributes 3.1 Ethical conduct and professional accountability. 3.2 Effective oral and written communication in professional and lay domains. 3.3 Creative, innovative and pro-active demeanour. 3.4 Professional use and management of information. 3.5 Orderly management of self and professional conduct. 3.6 Effective team membership and team leadership.

Successfully completing this Unit will contribute to the recognition of attainment of the following graduate attributes aligned to the AQF Level 7 criteria, Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologists and the Sydney Accord:

 Graduate Attributes (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Professional and Personal Development) EA Stage 1 Competencies Learning Outcomes A. Knowledge of Science and Engineering Fundamentals A1. Breadth of knowledge of engineering and systematic, theory-based understanding of underlying principles, and depth of knowledge across one or more engineering sub- disciplines 1.1, 1.3 1, 4, 5, 6 A2. Knowledge of mathematical, statistical and computer sciences appropriate for engineering technology 1.2 2, 3, 4, 6 A3. Discernment of knowledge development within the technology domain 1.4 1, 5 A4. Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the technology domain 1.5 B. Problem Solving, Critical Analysis and Judgement B1. Ability to research, synthesise, evaluate and innovatively apply theoretical concepts, knowledge and approaches across diverse engineering technology contexts to effectively solve engineering problems 1.4, 2.1, 2.3 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 B2. Technical and project management skills to design complex systems and solutions in line with developments in engineering technology professional practice 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.2 C. Effective Communication C1. Cognitive and technical skills to investigate, analyse and organise information and ideas and to communicate those ideas clearly and fluently, in both written and spoken forms appropriate to the audience 3.2 1, 5, 6 C2. Ability to engage effectively and appropriately across a diverse range of cultures 3.2 D. Design and Project Management D1. Apply systematic synthesis and design processes within the technology domain 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 5 D2. Apply systematic approaches to the conduct and management of projects within the technology domain 2.4 E. Accountability, Professional and Ethical Conduct E1. Innovation in applying engineering technology, having regard to ethics and impacts including economic; social; environmental and sustainability 1.6, 3.1, 3.4 E2. Professional conduct, understanding and accountability in professional practice across diverse circumstances including team work, leadership and independent work 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6

Unit Competency and Learning Outcome Map

This table details the mapping of the unit graduate attributes to the unit learning outcomes and the Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Engineering Technologist.

 Graduate Attributes A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 C1 C2 D1 D2 E1 E2 Engineers Australia Stage 1 Competency Standards for Engineering Technologist 1.1  1.2  1.3  1.4   1.5  1.6  2.1    2.2   2.3    2.4  3.1  3.2    3.3  3.4   3.5  3.6  Unit Learning Outcomes LO1    LO2   LO3   LO4    LO5      LO6    

# Student Assessment

 Assessment Type When Assessed Weighting   (% of total unit marks) Learning Outcomes Assessed Assessment 1 Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation Example Topic: Electrical quantities, circuit components, and DC circuit analysis. Students may complete a quiz with MCQ type answers and solve some simple equations to demonstrate a good understanding of the fundamental concepts Week 3 15% 1, 2 Assessment 2 Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation Example Topic: Solving AC circuits using polar and Cartesian coordinate systems. Students may be asked to provide solutions to simple problems on various topics Week 6 20% 3 and 4 Assessment 3 Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Practical / Remote Lab / Simulation / Project / Report Example Topic: Perform electrical measurements on circuits using digital instruments such as oscilloscopes or simulate and analyse complex waveforms. Week 10 20% 6 Assessment 4 Type: Examination An examination with a mix of descriptive questions and numerical problems to be completed within 3 hours. Final Week 40% 1 to 6 Attendance / Tutorial Participation Example: Presentation, discussion, group work, exercises, self-assessment/reflection, case study analysis, application. Continuous 5% 1 to 6

Prescribed and recommended readings

## Suggested Textbook

• Bird John, 2013, Electric Circuit Theory and Technology, Newnes (Elsevier Science), ISBN 978-0415662864

## Reference Material

• Peer reviewed Journals

• Knovel library: http://app.knovel.com

• IDC Technologies publications

• Other material and online collections as advised during the lectures

# Unit Content

One topic is delivered per contact week, with the exception of part-time 24-week units, where one topic is delivered every two weeks.

## Topic 1

Electrical quantities, resistance in DC circuits.

1. Units of electrical measurements

2. Conductors and insulators

3. Introduction to circuits and Ohm’s law

4. Resistance and its variation with temperature

5. Different types of resistances and their comparison

6. Solving combinations of series and parallel circuits

7. Kirchhoff’s Law and its application in DC circuits

8. Voltage and current division in series/parallel circuits

## Topic 2

Capacitance and capacitors

1. Capacitance

2. Parallel plate capacitor

3. Dielectric strength and permittivity

4. Electrostatic field and field strength

5. Series/parallel circuits with capacitive elements

6. Behaviour of capacitors for step variations in DC voltage

7. Energy stored in capacitive components

8. Need for discharging of capacitors to discharge stored energy

9. Different types of capacitors and applications

10. Construction of a practical capacitor and calculation of capacitance

## Topic 3

Inductance and inductors

1. Inductance

2. Construction of an inductor

3. MMF/Ampere turns

4. Flux and flux density

5. Permeability and reluctance in a magnetic core

6. B-H curve and saturation

7. Hysteresis

8. Behaviour of inductances for step variations in DC voltage

9. Energy storage in inductive components

10. Need for discharging of inductances to discharge stored energy

## Topics 4 and 5

AC circuits

1. AC waveform characteristics and mathematical expression (amplitude/time relationship)

2. Peak and RMS values and calculation of crest (peak) factor and form factor for pure sine wave using mathematical methods

3. Purely resistive circuits: voltage/current relationships

4. Purely inductive circuits and the concept of inductive reactance

5. Voltage/current relationships in inductive AC circuits

6. Saturation and the behaviour of inductance upon saturation in an AC circuit

7. Hysteresis associated with AC supply and hysteresis loss

8. Purely capacitive circuits: Capacitive reactance, series and parallel capacitor calculations

9. Voltage/current phase relationships of capacitive AC circuits

10. Dielectric loss and loss angle in a capacitor

11. Concept of impedance in AC circuits and voltage/current calculations using an impedance

12. Power in AC circuits and the concept of power factor to calculate useful power

13. Resonance in AC circuits-definition

14. Series resonance

15. Parallel resonance

16. Q factor

17. Voltage magnification

## Topics 6 and 7

Solving AC circuits using polar and Cartesian coordinates principles

1. Introduction to phasors and polar coordinates

2. Expressing an AC voltage waveform using polar coordinates

3. Using polar coordinate system to explain voltage/current relationship of an inductor

4. Using polar coordinate system to explain voltage/current relationship of a capacitor

5. Calculation of impedance of AC circuits using polar coordinates in series and parallel circuits

6. Voltage/current/impedance relationship using polar representation

7. Use of Cartesian coordinates to express voltage and current in AC circuits

8. Introduction to complex algebra and the operator ‘i’

9. Cartesian coordinates to represent AC circuits using complex notation

10. Expressing an AC voltage waveform using complex numbers

11. Using complex numbers to explain voltage/current relationship of an inductor

12. Using complex numbers to explain voltage/current relationship of a capacitor

13. Conversion between polar and Cartesian coordinates

14. Calculation of impedance of AC circuits using complex numbers in series and parallel circuits

15. Voltage/current/impedance relationship using complex numbers

16. Use of complex numbers to express voltage and current in AC circuits with a mix of components

## Topic 8

Electromagnetism and its applications

1. The relation between current and flux produced by a conductor

2. The principle of flux linkage inducing a voltage in a coil

3. The relation between current, flux, and force on a conductor

4. Fleming’s rules

5. Application in electrical machines and transformers

## Topic 9

Electrical measurements

1. Measurement using instruments-Basic galvanometer principle

2. Analogue instruments using moving coil/moving iron principle

3. Use of shunts and multipliers

4. Ohm metres and power metres

5. Digital instruments and their principle

6. Loading effect of instruments and errors introduced

7. Oscilloscope as measuring device

8. Potentiometers

9. Bridges and their use in measurements

## Topic 10

Circuit theorems applied to AC circuits

1. Constant voltage source

2. Constant current source

3. Kirchhoff’s Law as applied to AC circuits

4. The Superposition Theorem

5. Thevenin’s Theorem

6. Norton’s Theorem

7. Thevenin and Norton equivalent networks

8. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

9. Impedance matching

10. Delta-star transformation for circuit reduction

11. Mesh current analysis in AC circuits

12. Nodal analysis

13. Example calculations

## Topic 11

Complex waveforms and harmonics

1. General equation for a complex waveform

2. Harmonic synthesis

3. RMS, Mean and form factor for complex waveforms

4. Power associated with harmonic components

5. Resonance due to harmonics

6. Sources of harmonics

7. Harmonic analysis Fourier transform

8. Harmonic analysis using numerical methods from graphical/tabular data

## Topic 12

Unit Review

In the final week students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.